Analyze the companys internal activities

Analyze the companys internal activities
Value Chain Analysis is the process by which a company identifies the main activities and assistance that add value to the product, then analyzes it to reduce costs or increase differentiation. Value Chain Analysis is a strategy used to analyze the company's internal activities (Information from analysis of value chain and economics production). In other words, by looking into internal activities, the analysis reveals where a company's competitive advantage or drawbacks are. Companies that compete through differentiation advantage will try to do activities better than competitors will. If it competes through cost advantages, it will try to carry out internal activities at a lower cost than competitors. When a company is able to produce goods at a lower cost than the market price or to provide superior products, it makes a profit.
Value chain (value chain) describes the overall activities needed to produce goods or services, ranging from the design process, input of raw materials, the production process to the distribution to end consumers and services after marketing.

Porter explained, value chain analysis is a strategic analysis tool that is used to better understand the company's advantages, to identify where customer value can be increased or reduce costs, and to better understand the company's relationship with suppliers / suppliers, customers, and other companies .
The value chain identifies and connects various strategic activities of the company. The nature of the value chain depends on the nature of the industry and varies for manufacturing companies, service companies and non-profit oriented organizations. (Porter, 1980 in Pawarrangan, 2012)
Value Chain Analysis views the company as one part of the product value chain. Product value chain is an activity that starts from raw materials to after-sales handling. This value chain includes activities that occur due to relationships with suppliers (Supplier Linkages), and relationships with consumers (Consumer Linkages). This activity is a separate activity but very much dependent on one another. (Porter, 2001 in Wibowo, 2014).

Value Chain Analysis helps managers to understand the company's position in the product value chain to enhance competitive advantage. The Value Chain Analysis and Value Coalitions approach is the best approach in building company values towards a better direction.
Value Chain Analysis and Value Coalitions are more often associated with outside company activities (Weiler, 2004 in Wibowo, 2014). The concepts that underlie the analysis are that each company occupies a certain part or several parts of the entire value chain.
Determination of where the company is located from the entire value chain is a strategic analysis, namely where the company can provide the best value for key customers at the lowest possible cost. Therefore each company develops itself one or more of the parts in the value chain, based on a strategic analysis of its superiority (Widarsono, 2011).

Value chains provide a means to analyze the activities carried out by an organization. The Value Chain identifies the main areas of primary and supporting activity that will be asked to provide value to the organization's customers and potentially differentiates the organization from its competitors. We can use the concept of value chains to develop high-level process maps in organizations.
Value Chain Analysis is widely used by companies, namely the Porter's Value Chain Model which was introduced by Michael Porter in 1985. Here is an overview of the model of Porter's Value Chain:
orter's Value Chain focuses on the system, and how input is converted into output purchased by consumers. Using this point of view, Porter described the chain of activities common to all businesses, and he divided them into primary activities and support.

Primary Activies
The main activity is directly related to the physical creation, sale, maintenance and support of a product or service. They consist of:

Inbound Logistics - all processes related to receiving, storing, and distributing internal inputs.
Operations - transformation activities that convert inputs into output to be sold to customers.
Outbound Logistics - this activity provides products or services to customers.
Marketing & Sales - the process used to persuade customers to buy products for sale.
Service - activities related to maintaining the value of the product or service to the customer after purchasing the product.
Support Activites
This activity supports the main functions above. In our diagram, the dotted line shows that every support, or secondary, activity can play a role in every major activity. For example, procurement supports operations with certain activities, but also supports marketing and sales with other activities.

Procurement (Purchasing) - the organization's activities to obtain the resources needed to operate.
Human Resource Management - how well a company recruits, trains, motivates, rewards, and retains its employees.
Technological Development - this activity is related to managing and processing information, and protecting the company's knowledge base.
Infrastructure - a company support system, and functions that make it possible to maintain daily operations such as accounting, law, administration and management.

The following are the steps that a company must go through to get Cost Advantages:
Identify the main activities and company support. All activities (receiving and storing materials for marketing, sales and after sales support) carried out to produce goods or services must be clearly identified and separated from one another. This requires adequate knowledge of the company's operations because value chain activities are not regulated in the same way as the company itself.
Establish the relative importance of each activity in the total cost of the product. The total cost of producing a product or service must be broken down and assigned to each activity.

Identify costs for each activity.
Identify the relationship between activities. Cost reduction in one activity can lead to further cost reduction in the next activity. For example, fewer components in product design can cause less damaged parts and lower service costs.
Identify opportunities to reduce costs.
The following steps if the Value Chain Analysis is carried out by the company by relying on product / service differentiation. This is because more features and more satisfied customers with products / services that can be tailored to their needs so that the level of interest is higher.

Identifying customer value creation activities. After identifying all activities, the manager must focus on the activities that most contribute to creating customer value.
Evaluate differentiation strategies to increase customer value. Managers can use the following strategies to increase product differentiation and customer value:
Add more product features;
Focus on customer service and responsiveness;
Improve customization;
Offering complementary products.
Identifying the best differentiation that is sustainable. Typically, differentiation advantages and customer value will be the result of many interrelated activities and strategies used. The best combination of them must be used to pursue the benefits of sustainable differentiation.

Definition of social dynamics

Definition of social dynamics
Sociology studies social dynamics in society in specific contexts, for example, in the context of the state, social organization, or family. Social dynamics discuss the changes that occur in a limited scope. Here we can claim that social dynamics have a more specific scope of discussion. While social change can be considered more general. More detailed differences will be discussed at the end of this brief post.
Dynamics of change and traditional, this post will specifically discuss social dynamics and their examples in the community. The aspects of social dynamics will be explained briefly in point format. We will begin by discussing the definition of social dynamics by referring to the opinion of sociologist Nancy Brandon Tuma in contributing her article in the edited MacMillan Encyclopedia of Sociology edgar F. Borgatta and Rhonda J. V. Montgomery.

Definition of social dynamics
Nancy Brandon Tuma argues that social scientists in certain contexts often associate social dynamics with the dynamic patterns of a phenomenon. That is, social dynamics are often intended at how changes occur regularly.
Some topics are the focus of studies on social dynamics, for example, group dynamics, family dynamics, and population dynamics. The study topic shows that there is a specific scope in the study of social dynamics.

For example, studies on population dynamics will focus on aspects of growth or decline in population whose measurements are carried out regularly. With regular measurements, there is a trend of increase or decrease in population in an area or country. This process of changing trends is referred to as social dynamics.
The study of social dynamics in general uses a methodological model or formula to explain emerging social trends. The methodological model used is a formula for analyzing empirical data in the form of either narrative (qualitative) or numerical (quantitative). The use of the model implies a cumulative aspect in the analysis of social dynamics.
For example, the model for measuring population density uses the formulation of area divided by population. The model is used to analyze, evaluate or predict how the level of population density in the area under study some time in the future.

Sociologically, social dynamics means social changes that occur regularly that are measured using a model or formula. In high school or equivalent in Indonesia, the definition of social dynamics is often equated with social change. Some examples of dynamics in society can indeed be called change, but again, the two are different.
Here, I will mention a few examples of social change that are worth mentioning as social dynamics. Previously, I have written several examples of social change, theories of social change, and forms of social change. For readers who are looking for that information, you can directly click the link.

Examples of social dynamics in society
Population growth
Population growth is a global phenomenon. The majority of countries in the world experience it. Only a handful of countries that experience a deficit in the number of population each year. Population growth has broad social implications, such as; urbanization, poverty, social conflict and so on. Therefore, studies relating to the social impact of population growth are important. The model used in population dynamics studies can show trends of change on a regular basis. For example, every ten years the population growth of a country reaches 5%. So, the next 10 years or even 100 years can be predicted approximately how many residents with the assumption of all constant variables.

Social segregation
Social segregation can be simply interpreted as a process in which the population experiences compartmentalization. People who experience segregation will form small groups according to their characteristics. For example, in a city, black residents, their houses are close to one another so as to form a group. Yellow people formed another group. White settlements also cluster themselves. The example is a form of social segregation which is seen from its residence based on race or skin color. Segregation is a cumulative process where there is a starting point. The process of change which from the beginning was probably not realized until segregated settlement emerged was an example of social dynamics.

Polarization of community social groups
Polarization can be described as the process of breaking up community units into smaller groups. If you imagine it is almost similar to social segregation. The difference is that polarization is a pattern of division of groups in contrast to each other. For example, wealthy city residents form their own groups. The urban poor also formed their own group. The result is a contrast between rich and poor people in one city. You can imagine Jakarta residents between those who live in an elite area and on the banks of the river. Visible polarization of residence between rich and poor people.
From the three examples above, we can identify certain criteria that cause social change that deserve to be called social dynamics. Pulled from the example above, I described several aspects of social dynamics.

Social dynamic aspects
Occur in the social system. The system can consist of similar entities. For example, family members who experience changes, thus affecting social relationships in the family. A country's population grouped by gender, age, income and so on are in a system with similar entities.
Have a regular pattern. Dynamics, as explained earlier, are changes that occur regularly in society. For example, the rate of population increase in the capital city, can be measured every year and can also be predicted a few years in the future if there is no policy to suppress or reduce.

Has a level of predictability. Social dynamics are analyzed using a formula that can read trends going forward. Future trends are always in the form of probabilities. Social engineering usually involves data from studies that are predictive in nature.
The pattern of regularity is related to the level of balance. Changes that occur regularly are usually marked by the meeting point of the balance. For example, how migration policies can patch up a country's population deficit so that the economy does not collapse.
There is an emphasis on the process of change. Emphasis on the process of change includes step by step the occurrence of social change. This aspect pays attention in detail to the cause and effect of change arising from small to large scale.

Also read the Social System: Definition and Examples
We can summarize the above aspects into five points: system, regularity, predictability of balance and process. These five points can be used to help define what social dynamics are and how they are different from social change.

This Food Sources of Animal Protein

This Food Sources of Animal Protein
In addition to vegetable protein, you are also encouraged to eat a variety of foods that are sources of animal protein. This is important because in addition to meeting the needs of balanced nutrition, animal protein is also useful in building and repairing tissue in your body.
The friendly twist of Bushmeat, although there are some people who have adopted a vegetarian diet or don't eat animal meat, that doesn't mean they can't get animal protein. Because in addition to meat, there are also a variety of food sources of animal protein that can be consumed, such as eggs and milk.
Protein is a key important nutrient that is useful for the formation of new cells in the body, affecting the work of enzymes, hormones, and immunity.
In order to meet the intake of protein needed by the body, you also need to know where the source of the protein comes from. There are two sources of protein, namely vegetable and animal protein. There are various food sources that contain protein that can be consumed to meet daily protein needs. The following are some examples of the best sources of protein for the body.

Know the Advantages of Animal Protein
Animal protein is protein derived from animals, including ruminant meat (beef, mutton, venison), poultry (chicken, duck meat), seafood, and eggs and milk.
One of the best known advantages of animal protein is that it has a more complete composition of essential amino acids than vegetable protein. Not only that, animal protein also has a more diverse nutritional content, such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, iron, and omega-3 fatty acids.
However, although animal protein has several advantages, you are not advised to consume it excessively, especially red meat. Consuming too much animal protein can pose a risk to your health, from diabetes to heart disease to cancer.

List of Foods for Animal Protein Sources and Their Benefits
The following are some of the list of animal protein food sources that you can consume in the daily menu:
1. Meat without fat
Lean meat is a good source of animal protein for health. In addition to lower calorie counts, these foods also contain a variety of vitamins and minerals, such as vitamin B12, niacin, and selenium.
There are several benefits that can be taken from the consumption of lean meat, including increasing metabolism, increasing muscle mass, and even bone strength and density.

2. Fish
Not only lean meat, fish is also one type of food source of animal protein which is very rich in nutrient content in it, ranging from omega-3 fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, minerals and vitamins A, D, B6, and B12.
In general, the benefits of eating fish are believed to strengthen bones, reduce the risk of asthma and diabetes in children, and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (heart and blood vessel disease).

3. Eggs
Compared to other types of animal protein sources, eggs are among the best food sources of protein which are very easy to obtain at affordable prices. The highest protein content is found in the egg whites.

4. Milk, cheese and yogurt
Milk, cheese, and yogurt have long been known as a source of protein, calcium, and vitamin D. Of the many choices of milk, you are advised to consume skim milk or low-fat milk, because it is very good for keeping bones and teeth strong, and can help prevent osteoporosis.
In fulfilling balanced nutrition, you are advised to consume at least 2-3 servings of animal protein sources every day, accompanied by staple foods, vegetables, and fruits.
However, if you have certain medical conditions, consult with your nutritionist to find out the recommended portion of animal protein, according to your health condition.

The Role of Agro-Industry in the Economy

The Role of Agro-Industry in the Economy
Definition of Agro-Industry
Many definitions have been put forward about Agro Industry. Some of them:
Agro-industry is an industry that adds value to agricultural products in the broadest sense including marine products, forest products, livestock and fisheries (Handito Hadi Joewono)
Agribusiness is a series of activities involving input subsystems, production subsystems, processing subsystems (agro-industry), results marketing subsystems and supporting subsystems. Agro-industry is a business related to processing that involves processing, preservation, storage, and packing of agricultural products, especially coastal and marine aquaculture (Ngangi, on Role of Homegarden Agroforestry).

Agro-Industry Principles
Wibowo (1997) suggested the need for agro-industry development in rural areas by taking into account the basic principles including:
Spur competitive advantages of products / commodities as well as the comparability of each region,
Spur increased capacity of human resources and grow agro-industry that is appropriate and able to be carried out in the developed area,
Expanding the area of leading commodity agribusiness centers that will later function as suppliers of sustainable raw materials,
Spur regional agribusiness growth by presenting agribusiness subsystems,
Presenting various means of supporting the development of rural industries.

The development of agro-industry as a choice of rural modernization model must be able to increase employment opportunities and farmers' incomes. For this, the formulation of agricultural development planning needs to be adjusted to the characteristics of the region and the availability of appropriate technology. So that the allocation of resources and limited funds, can produce optimal output, which in turn will have a positive impact on people's welfare. In order for a sustainable rural development model to be realized a resource management guideline is needed through a wise understanding of agroecosystem insights, namely the use of assets for economic activities without ignoring aspects of environmental preservation.

Agro-Industry Objectives & objectives
The goal to be achieved in the development of rural agro-industry is to improve the welfare of rural communities through efforts to increase added value and competitiveness of agricultural products. To realize this goal, the development of rural agro-industry is directed at:
Developing industrial clusters, namely processing industries integrated with production centers of raw materials and supporting facilities,
Develop household and small scale processing industries supported by medium and large scale processing industries, and
Developing processing industries that have high competitiveness to increase exports and meet domestic needs

Scope of Agriculture Industry (Agroindustry)
During the economic crisis in 1998, industries that relied on high technology were supported by capital-intensive investments, most of whose capital was from foreign debts and some of their imported equipment and raw materials were very fragile. One by one the industry went out of business, causing high unemployment and negative economic growth. The opposite occurs in industries that are based on natural resources, labor-intensive investment, are not dependent on imports and do not use foreign debt. This industry is still alive and developing and produces positive growth even though it is small. The sector is agro-industry (agriculture industry).

Agro-industry is an industry that processes primary agricultural commodities into processed products both end products (Finish Products) and intermediate products (Intermediate Products). Actually there are two agro-industries, such as the above mentioned so-called downstream agro-industry and upstream agro-industry, namely industries that produce products in the form of agricultural equipment and machinery, agricultural production facilities and materials needed by the agricultural sector (Masyhuri, 2000). Agro-industry includes post-harvest handling, food and beverage processing industry, biopharma industry, bioenergy industry, by-product processing industry and agro-tourism industry. In the following discussion, the definition of agro-industry is limited by the narrow definition of downstream agro-industry.

Growing agricultural product processing industries include the industry of large agricultural products (factories), medium and small industries and home industries. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics (2001) industries are grouped into 4 groups namely:
Home industry with a workforce of 1-4 people
Small industry with a workforce of 5-19 people
Medium or medium industry with a workforce of 20-99 people
Large industries employ more than 100 people.
The number of companies processing agricultural products (food) in 2000 which were medium and large industries were 5,612 units, small industries were 82,430 units and which were home industries were 828,140 units. This shows that the agricultural processing industry is mostly included in small industries and home industries. The development of small and household industries must be directed to improve their capabilities, so that they can compete in the domestic market, in accordance with the characteristics of this industry, namely:
Most process natural raw materials in the vicinity, and are not very dependent on imports
Generally done by family and relatives with no clear division of tasks
Production results are sold not with promotions that are marketed in the local market within a narrow radius so that the distribution costs are not expensive

Sustainable Agro-Industry
The concept of sustainable agro-industry emerged in conjunction with a newly established but not long-lived agro-industrial company. Many examples show the existence of agro-industry companies that initially developed rapidly, but eventually closed for various reasons, including due to mismanagement, lack of raw materials or lack of consumers who buy agro-industrial products. Agroindustry companies that are closed also do not know the scale of business, whether large, medium or small scale companies.
Sustainable agro-industry development is the development of agro-industries that are based on the concept of sustainable development. So egroindustry is built and developed by considering aspects of management and conservation of natural resources. The technology used and the institutions involved in the development process are directed to fulfill

Measurement of Financial Performance

Measurement of Financial Performance
Financial performance is - a formal effort by the company to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the company's activities that are running at a certain time period. Well, some notions of financial performance are as below.

A. Definition of Financial Performance According to Experts
According to Jumingan (2006: 239) on Empirical Investigation of SOE Financial Performance Factors, financial performance is a picture of the company's financial condition in a certain period, both concerning the aspects of raising funds or channeling funds, and is usually measured using indicators of capital adequacy, liquidity, and profitability.
According to Sutrisno (2009: 53), financial performance is an achievement that has been achieved by a company in a certain period as a reflection of the soundness of the company.
According to Fahmi (2011: 2), financial performance is an analysis carried out to see the extent to which a company is implementing using the rules of good and correct financial implementation. Company performance is a picture of a company's financial condition that is analyzed using financial analysis tools, so that it can be seen how good and bad the financial condition of a company is reflected in work performance in a certain period. This is very important so that resources are used optimally when facing environmental changes.

B. Measurement of Financial Performance
The company's financial performance is closely related to measurement and also performance appraisal. Performance measurement is the qualification & efficiency and effectiveness of the company in operating the company's business during the accounting period. The performance appraisal, according to Srimindarti (2006: 34), is a determination of operational and organizational effectiveness and employees based on periodically determined targets, standards and criteria.
Performance measurement is used by companies to make improvements over their operational activities so they can compete with other companies. This financial performance analysis is a critical review process of reviewing data, calculating, measuring, then interpreting, and providing a solution to the company's finances within a certain period.

Financial Performance Objectives
The following are some objectives for measuring financial performance, consisting of:
Know the level of liquidity, namely the company's ability to meet financial obligations that must be resolved immediately when billed.
Knowing the level of solvency, which is the company's ability to meet its financial obligations if the company is liquidated, the financial obligations in question include short-term and long-term financial.
Knowing the level of profitability or profitability, namely the company's ability to generate profits during a certain period by using assets or capital productively.
Knowing the level of stability, namely the company's ability to run and maintain its business so that it remains stable. The ability in question is measured by the ability of the company to pay the principal debt and interest expense on time.

According to Munawir (2012: 31) said that the objectives of measuring the company's financial performance are:
Know the level of liquidity. This liquidity shows a company's ability to meet financial obligations that should be resolved immediately when billed.
Know the level of solvency. This solvency shows a company's ability to meet its financial obligations if the company is liquidated, both financial in the short term and long term.
Know the level of profitability. Profitability or often known as profitability shows a company's ability to generate profits for a certain period.
Know the level of stability. This stability demonstrates a company's ability to conduct its business in a stable manner, measured using consideration of the company's ability to repay its debts and pay interest on its debts on time.

PT h Energy Tbk revealed that the completion of the Investigative Audit was the reason for the delay in submission of the 31 December 2019 and 31 March 2020 financial statements.
Based on the disclosure of information reported by the Indonesia Stock Exchange on Thursday (9/1), management said that the problem behind the delay in submitting the 2018 financial statements and the first quarter of 2019 was due to the incomplete implementation of the Investigation Audit.
"The financial statements as of December 31, 2019 and the financial reports as of March 31, 2019 have not yet been submitted because of an Investigative Audit," said Director, Lawrence TP Siburian, when responding to IDX questions related to the delay in submission of the financial statements.

IDX also questioned, the estimated time of payment of a fine late submission of financial statements. However, can not be sure of the time of payment of the fine. However, the company promised to submit the late financial statements after the Investigation Audit was finished.
In addition, the IDX also questioned the attitude that did not meet the Exchange's invitation to hold a hearing on July 2, 2019. In the disclosure of the information, only mentioned being unable to attend, so it could not fulfill the invitation. "Due to internal constraints in the company, the office is temporarily closed," Lawrence said when answering the IDX's questions related to office closures.
Regarding the company's operational development, he claimed to have conducted an Extraordinary General Meeting of Shareholders on October 24, 2019. Thus, the new directors are currently conducting internal consolidation.

How to Cultivate Soy Bean Plants Good and Right

How to Cultivate Soy Bean Plants Good and Right
Growing Requirements
Soybean plants are very suitable to be planted in open fields in areas with heat. In the world, soybean plants can grow well in the lowlands to areas with an altitude of 1,200 m above sea level. Rainfall ranges from 150 mm - 200 mm / month with 12 hours / day of solar irradiation, and an average humidity (RH) of 65% (Information on Sowing Date on Growth of Soybean). The pH for the growth of soybeans and Rhizobium bacteria is 6.0 - 6.8. If the soil pH is less than 6.0, to increase the pH, calcification, for example with calcite, dolomite, or grilled lime. Giving lime is done about 2 to 4 weeks before planting along with land management.
Soy is indeed healthy so it's good for consumption. Why is soy good for consumption? The answer is because the high vegetable protein content in these foods is certainly able to make soybean processed tempeh into one of the healthy foods of everyday life. soy-based foods are also suitable for low calorie diet foods. So do not be surprised if many people in various parts of the world both in rural and urban areas consume soy every day.
Because of the very high consumer demand for soybeans, the market demand for soybeans is also very high. This makes soybeans one of the agricultural commodities that always gets a good price in Indonesia. Farmers in the world certainly take advantage of this opportunity to cultivate soybeans as well as possible in order to get the maximum profit.
So that the maximum profit, then before cultivating soybeans, we must know in advance the techniques and how to grow soybeans well. For those of you who intend to plant soybeans, then consider the following information about how to grow soybeans as a guide for your soybean cultivation. The steps for soybean cultivation are as follows:

Seed Selection
Seed quality also determines soy quality. Therefore, in order to be able to provide satisfying results, soybean varieties must be selected according to the needs, able to adapt to the conditions of the planting land, and meet good seed quality standards.
Before planting is carried out, it is first given a basic fertilizer. Fertilizers used in the form of TSP are 75 kg - 200 kg / hectare, KCl 50 kg - 100 kg / hectare, and Urea 50 kg / hectare. The dosage of fertilizer is adjusted as recommended. Fertilizer is spread evenly in the field, or put into holes on the right and left of the planting hole as deep as 5 cm.

Planting
In planting soybeans, seeds or seeds are planted directly. Planting holes are made with torches as deep as 3 cm to 4 cm with spacing in accordance with land conditions. In each planting hole inserted 2 to 3 seeds, then covered with thin soil.

Care or Maintenance
Mulch Installation
To reduce the evaporation of the soil on the planting land, mulching can be done in the form of dry straw. Mulch is spread between the rows where the seeds are planted with a thickness of between 3 cm to 5 cm.

Stitching
Replanting needs to be done, that is 1 week after planting, the purpose of replanting is to replace dead or non-growing soybean seeds. Stitching is done not to be too late because it can result in plant growth rates much different.

Irrigation
Watering should be done in the morning or evening. Soybean plants require water during germination (0 to 5 days after planting), vegetative initial stage (15 to 20 days), flowering period and seed formation (35 to 65 days). Watering is done not to make the soil too muddy or even dry.

Weeding And Easing
Weeding is done when the plants are about 20-30 days after planting. The first weeding is done in conjunction with supplementary fertilization. The second weeding is done after the plants finish flowering. In addition, do also loose soil. Loosening is done carefully so as not to destroy plant roots.

Supplementary fertilization
Supplementary fertilizer is applied when the plant is 20 to 30 days after planting. Supplementary fertilizers are only applied on infertile soils. Fertilizer used in the form of urea at a dose of 50 kg / hectare, then covered with soil and increasing soybean production, can also be used ZPT (Growth Regulatory Substances) and PPC (Liquid Complementary Fertilizers), the dosage used is adjusted to the recommended dose.

Pests And Diseases
Pests that often attack soybean plants are caterpillar caterpillars, caterpillars pods, Grayak caterpillars, leaf roller caterpillars, green Ladybugs, Ladybugs pods, bean flies, shoot flies, red and yellow earth beetles, and warehouse pests. While diseases that often attack soybean plants are broom, dwarf, leaf rust, and rhizoctonia rot.

Soybean Harvesting
Soybean harvesting is determined by several factors, namely variety and height of the planting area. In the highlands, soybeans are ready to harvest around 10-20 days compared to the lowlands. The general characteristics of ready-to-harvest soybean plants are as follows.

The pods are evenly browned
Many leaves have dried and fallen.
The stem is dry.
After harvesting, yields are collected and the pods are selected based on their maturity. Next, the pods are transported to the drying area. The drying process can be done with the help of solar heat.

Special treatment for Hepatitis B

Special treatment for Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is liver inflammation caused by the hepatitis B virus. This virus can be transmitted through sexual contact or sharing needles.
Hepatitis B infection is a disease that does not last long in the patient's body and will heal itself without special treatment. This condition is called acute hepatitis B infection. However, hepatitis B infection can also persist and persist in a person's body (become chronic) (Medical practices using Artificial Neural Network for the Diagnosis of Hepatitis B Journals).
Chronic hepatitis B infection can cause complications that can endanger lives, namely cirrhosis and liver cancer. Therefore, patients with chronic hepatitis B need to do regular control to the doctor to get treatment and early detection if complications occur. Keep in mind, hepatitis B can be prevented by vaccinating hepatitis B.

Symptoms of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B often does not cause symptoms, so the sufferer does not realize that he has been infected. However, symptoms can still appear after 1-5 months from first exposure to the virus. Symptoms that can appear are fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and jaundice.

Causes of Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B is not contagious if you only share eating utensils or cuddle with the sufferer.
Transmission of this virus occurs through unprotected sexual intercourse and sharing syringes with hepatitis B sufferers. This is because the hepatitis B virus is in the blood and body fluids, such as sperm and vaginal fluid.
In addition, hepatitis B can also be transmitted from women who are pregnant to the baby in the womb.

Diagnosis of Hepatitis B
It was mentioned earlier that hepatitis B often causes no symptoms until complications arise. Therefore, this disease is generally detected when someone is screening for hepatitis B.
If it is detected that hepatitis B is detected, the doctor will conduct further tests, such as blood tests, abdominal ultrasound, and liver tissue sampling (liver biopsy). This examination aims to assess whether the hepatitis B experienced by patients is acute or chronic, and check the level of damage and liver function of patients.

Hepatitis B treatment
There are no specific treatment steps for acute hepatitis B conditions. The infection will heal itself without requiring special treatment. Handling is only intended to relieve symptoms that arise. However, some acute hepatitis B infections will become chronic.
One step of treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis B is to take antiviral drugs. Provision of antiviral drugs aims to prevent the development of the virus, not to eliminate the virus from the body of the sufferer completely.
Treatment of chronic hepatitis B requires the patient's compliance to periodically control the doctor to see the progress of the disease and evaluate treatment. That is because chronic hepatitis B can cause liver damage. If the liver damage is severe enough, your doctor may recommend a liver transplant procedure.

Complications of Hepatitis B
Patients with chronic hepatitis B are at risk of causing cirrhosis, liver cancer, and liver failure. Although rare, acute hepatitis B infection can also cause complications in the form of fulminant hepatitis B which can be life threatening.

Vaccines and Prevention of Hepatitis B
The main step to prevent hepatitis B is through vaccination. Hepatitis B vaccine is a mandatory vaccine given to children. The effects of vaccines given when children will not last a lifetime, so vaccinations need to be repeated as adults.
In addition to vaccination, several actions also need to be taken to reduce the risk of getting hepatitis B, which is to have safe sex and not abuse drugs.

HEPATITIS B is a serious infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Data from the Ministry of Health in 2013 states that there are 18 million Indonesians with positive hepatitis B.
As many as 50 percent of patients with hepatitis B infection have the potential to become chronic infections. Hepatitis B virus infection can cause acute (recent) infections and chronic (long-lasting) infections. At the stage of chronic infection there can be a risk of cirrhosis, liver cancer, or liver failure.
The difficulty encountered was acute hepatitis B virus infection that is difficult to recognize. The symptoms are not immediately felt even in some asymptomatic people. In the acute phase the symptoms that appear can be yellow, especially in the eyes and skin, nausea, vomiting, fever, and fatigue.

In rare cases, it can cause a decrease in consciousness, seizures, and manifestations of bleeding. In the chronic phase, usually appears when cirrhosis has occurred. Complaints that are often complained by patients are yellowing of the eyes and skin, swollen abdomen, swelling of the legs and dilation of blood vessels on the surface of the skin.
To make a diagnosis, an antigen and antibody hepatitis test is needed. The examination is carried out with a blood test. Other tests are needed to determine the degree of damage to the liver with a blood test. If needed, an ultrasound examination can be done to see a picture of the heart.
Hepatitis B can be transmitted through contact with body flu with hepatitis, such as sperm and vaginal fluid. Some risk factors are sexual contact, for example, by changing partners and having unprotected sex, sharing shared needles, accidentally punctured needles, and transmission from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth.

At a small frequency, transmission can occur through other tools, such as tattoo needles and shavers. However, hepatitis B will not be transmitted by shaking hands, hugging, using the same cutlery or towel so that we can live side by side with hepatitis B patients.
There is no drug that can eliminate hepatitis B virus infection. Treatment is only available to reduce symptoms, relieve pain, and maintain patient comfort. In chronic hepatitis B infection can be given antiviral to inhibit virus production and prevent liver damage. Nevertheless, patients can still live a proper life including exercising.

Prevention efforts can be done by vaccination. In infants, this vaccination must be given because it is included in the immunization program. However, adults, of all ages, are encouraged to get hepatitis B vaccination. Highly recommended people to get vaccinated are people who have more than one sexual partner, injecting drug users or have a partner / former injecting drug users, medical workers, those who living with hepatitis B patients, as well as patients with chronic liver and kidney disease.
People also need to get knowledge about hepatitis B from experts. Thus, the community can live a healthy lifestyle and avoid risk factors for hepatitis B. People with hepatitis B must routinely control their doctors for treatment and monitor the progression of the disease. People with hepatitis B must also have knowledge so that they can coexist with non-patients and avoid HIV transmission. Lay seminars are one way for people to gain knowledge.